“(∃x)φx” — “There exists an x for which φx is true,” or “there exists an x satisfying φx” page 16. 1st ed.
“(x)φx” — “the x which satisfies .” Page 31. 1st ed.
“E!(x)φx” — “the x satisfying φx exists”. Page 32. 1st ed.
“𝜾 ‘x” — “the class whose only member is x.” page 37, 1st ed.
萧光琰是1968年12月10日晚自杀的。1920年萧光琰出生于日本（祖籍福建福州），后移居美国。1942年毕业于坡摩那大学化学 系，1945年获得芝加哥大学研究院物理化学博士学位，后任芝加哥大学化学系助理研究员、冶金研究所研究员、美孚石油公司化学师。1950年回国，后到大 连化学物理研究所担任研究员。在抗美援朝、反右运动等一系列运动中，萧光琰都因直率的个性惹来不大不小的麻烦。文革开始后，他却未能逃此劫难，被人怀疑是 特务为美国提供情报，1968年10月5日被关进“牛棚”。有人对他进行审问，对他拳打脚踢，甚至使用皮鞭，打得他遍体鳞伤。当时还有人给他起了个外号叫 “白屎”（博士的谐音）。在饱受了心灵和肉体的双重折磨之后，萧光琰在牛棚服用安眠药（巴比妥）自杀。当天下午，萧光琰的妻子，正在营城子农场劳动改造的 美籍华人甄素辉被拉到化学物理所，被要求继续交待萧光琰的罪行。在萧光琰夫妇被揪斗后，他们15岁的女儿小洛连在嘲骂、追打中过着痛苦的孤独生活。12月 14日，甄素辉和小洛连也一起服用巴比妥自杀了。图为萧光琰在某次博士论文答辩会上留影。
Define “ is identical with ” as meaning “whatever is true of is true of ,” i.e.
“ always implies .” (1)
If is identical with and “ is identical with , then is identical with a.
Although the conclusion is sound, the above reasoning embodies a vicous-circle fallacy. The following is the above demonstration written out in full:
“ is identical with ” is, by definition, “.” (2)
. [(1). ] (3)
.implies. . (4)
is identical to
(1) is a function in the form of
(2) is a function of and can be written as in which is an apparent variable instead of a real variable.
In step (3), (2) is taken as a possible value of , but (2) involves the totality (all possible values) of , thus a value of is determined by its totality and violates vicious-circle principle.
Note: A value of is obtained by assigning a , namely , etc. A value of is obtained by assigning an , namely , etc. The latter determination is NOT used in this post.
Nine-tenths of the activities of a modern Government are harmful; therefore the worse they are performed, the better. In China, where the Government is lazy, corrupt, and stupid, there is a degree of individual liberty which has been wholly lost in the rest of the world. –Bertrand Russell. Problem of China. 1922
Quoter’s note: The most honest government is also the most persecuting, from the Puritans in 1600’s New England to Mao’s regime in the 1960’s. If equality becomes an end, the most likely result will be universal poverty, as is shown by former communist states in their most pious periods.